If the sample data we collect is not collected appropriately, the data we gather may be completely useless.
An observational study allows us to measure certain characteristics, but we don’t modify the subjects which are being studied.
In an experiment we apply a treatment, then we observe its effects on a subject.
In an experiment, the group which is being treated will be compared to the group that did not receive any treatment. For example, let’s say the FDA chooses a random sample of aspirin in which they measure the accuracy. This would be considered an observational study since the FDA did not apply any treatment to the tablets but simply observing.
Different Types of Observational Studies
Cross-sectional study – in this type of study, the data is observed, then measured, and collected at one point in time. For example, a research company surveys about 5000 houses to determine who watches a certain tv show. They observe, measure, and collect these surveys, all at once.
Retrospective (also called case-control) study – our data values are collected from the past. This is done by going back into time (through records and examination, interviews, etc).
Then there is a prospective (or longitudinal or cohort) study. Here, data is collected in the future by groups that share common factors.
Issues to consider when collecting sample data
Control Effects of Variables – we should make sure not to let other variables interfere with any. effects we want to see.
Replication and Sample size – the sample size should be large enough so we are able to see the effects and their true nature. Making sure we use an appropriate method is important, such as one that is based on randomness.
Following the above considerations, we can confidently use data, not only because of sample size but also when replicating the study in the future.
What is Randomization?
Randomization – using a random procedure to collect individual sample items.
In a random sample, those in a population are selected in a way that gives each individual member an equal chance of being selected.
There are many ways to collect a random sample. The important thing is making sure each member has an equal chance of being selected.
Then there is a simple random sample. A simple random sample of size n subjects is chosen in a way that every possible data sample of the same size n has an equal chance of being chosen.
A probability sample selects members from a population in such a way that each member is known but not necessarily the same chance of being selected.
Example of Probability Sample, Simple Random Sample, and Random Sample
Conceptualize a classroom with 60 students who are arranged in 6 rows of 10 students each. Pretend the professor selected a sample of 10 students by the roll of a die, then selecting the row which corresponded to the outcome. Because all the students have the same chance of being selected, this would be an example of a random sample. Every student has a 1:6 chance of being selected. It is not a simple random sample since the sampling design (using a die) does not allow us to select 10 students who are in different rows, so we can’t have different sets of 10, only the particular rows. But it is a probability sample since each student has a known chance (1/6) of being selected.
Other Kinds of Sampling
Systematic sampling – one selects a starting point and then must select kth (for example ever 5th) element in a population. For example, from our starting point, we would select every 5th element. That would make up our sample.
With convenience sampling, we simply utilize results that are easy to get. (Choose the sample that is easiest to get).
Stratified sampling – when one subdivides population into at the minimum, 2 groups. These groups share the same characteristics. This can be age, gender, hair color, etc. Then we get a sample from each subgroup (also called stratum). So if we chose the data, age, we then draw a sample from those subgroups.
In cluster sampling, one divides the population into sections (also called clusters), then we randomly select some of the clusters, and then we choose the members from those clusters.
For example, if a policeman would stop and interview every 5th driver, that would be systematic sampling. Where k is 5 since every 5th driver was selected.
If a program was to randomly select 5 different classes and interviewed all students in those classes that would be an example of cluster sampling.
Conclusion, 2 types of errors to watch out for
Sampling error – this is the difference between a sample result and the actual population result. This error results from a chance fluctuation of the sample.
Nonsampling error – this occurs when sample data is not correctly collected, analyzed, or recorded (such as using a biased sample or defective instrument, or not copying the data correctly).
Parameter – this is always a numerical measurement which describes a characteristic of a population.
Statistic – this is always a numerical measurement which describes a characteristic of a sample.
Though these both may sound similar, a parameter and statistic are not the same at all except for the fact they are both numerical measurements. Since they sound similar it would prove wise to provide a couple of examples to make sure we understand the difference between the 2.
Take into consideration the congress of the United States, we can see there are so many men and so many women. If we are talking about the entire group of congress, that would be a parameter.
A statistic would deal with, for example, the average amount of time one may spend waiting to check out at the grocery store. This would require only a sample of people waiting as opposed to a parameter which describes a population, not a sample.
Quantitative data -data which consists always of numbers which represent counts or measurements.
Qualitative data – this is data which consists and is distinguished by any non-numerical characteristic. It is also referred to commonly as categorical or attributes data).
Discrete data – this type of data results when the amount of possible values is a countable or a finite number. (So the number of possible values would be something like 0, 1, 2, and continue forward so on and so on.
Continuous (numerical) data – this data results from values whos possibilities are infinite. These values correspond to a continuous scale which covers ranges of values with no gaps, jumps, or interruptions.
Example and Difference Between Continuous Data and Discrete Data
If several sets of data, would they all be considered the same? Let’s look at an example to better understand the difference between discrete data and continuous (numerical) data.
For discrete data, let us picture counting the average eggs a chicken hatches. This number at the end of the day will be a number such as 1, 2, 3, etc.
For continuous data, let us picture milking a cow instead, and ending up with what we believe to be 2 gallons of milk, but really it could be something like 2.03, or better yet it might be something like 2.03111, in other words, it could take any value that is within a continuous range.
We counted for chicken eggs (that was discrete), but for cows milk, we measured it (that would be continuous).
The 4 different levels of measurement (With examples)
So how would we break down the different data? We can use different levels of measurements. How do we take a particular data set and then try to determine its level of measurement? We should always start at the nominal level. Any data will satisfy the requirements of the nominal level.
The nominal level of measurement – this level is always characterized in data which consists of labels, names, or categories. This data can’t be arranged in any ordering scheme, such as high to low.
If we are looking at NBA player heights, the data would meet the first level of measurement since the data is height. Since it meets the nominal level, we would then check the ordinal level.
The ordinal level of measurement – this is when the data can be arranged in a specific order, but the differences between the values either are meaningless or can’t be determined. Such as in the question “rate your degree of discomfort, 1-not bad , 2-kind of bad, or 3- bad”. In this example, the numbers are only used as tags.
Can we arrange the data in a meaningful order regarding NBA player heights? With height, we are able to arrange the data from shortest to tallest, or tallest to shortest. This means it satisfies the ordinal level which means we can ignore the nominal level since that is the lowest level. The next level we want to look at is the interval level.
Then we have the interval level of measurement – this is similar to the ordinal level, the addition would be that the differences between 2 values of data are meaningful. (Data that is at this level doesn’t have a natural zero starting point or in other words, where none of the quantity is present.)
Do our heights satisfy this? If we have a height of 5’6 and another of 5’12, then the data between those 2 values are meaningful. This data type (heights) also satisfies the interval level of measurement. The last and highest possible level is the ratio level of measurement.
The ratio level of measurement – Here we are the same as the interval level, with the simple addition of there being a natural zero starting point. Zero would, of course, indicate that there is none if a quantity present). At this level, ratios and differences are meaningful.
Does our height example meet this last and highest level? Does zero have meaning in terms of height? You bet your socks it does! Zero would mean there is no height, so it is meaningful.
Here is another example for you
What would be the level of measurement for Consumer Reports which provides 3 ratings, “not recommended”, “recommended”, and “best buy”.
Since we are able to put our data in order from “best buy” to “not recommended” this satisfies the ordinal level of measurement. But since we are not able to determine a meaningful difference between all classifications of “best buy”, “recommended”, and “not recommended”. So the highest level would be the ordinal level.
A survey concerning reading ebooks vs printed books
Surveys usually help us in improving or making adjustments to products or services. As well as to educate and attempt to explain questions. These may shape different aspects of our life. Surveys allow us to learn the insights and opinions of other people. One survey conducted by USA Today wanted to see if people prefer printed books over electronic ones. There were 281 respondents of which 35% preferred electronic books, while 65% preferred printed books. This survey may seem to suggest that most people rather read printed books than ebooks.
One of the main objectives of statistics is critical thinking. One should not blindly accept the results that are presented. Questioning the validity of survey results is important. Asking questions such as, “How were the respondents chosen?” or “Who is conducting this survey?”, are a couple of important questions to ask before accepting results.
Misleading Information, Deceptive Charts, and Data
The information and results gathered and presented must be tested to ensure validity. The chart presented above shows the same pie chart from different positions. We see on the left pie chart, item C is shown and represented in a way that is similar from the current position to item A. But when we see the pie chart from above (image on the right) we see item C is more than double the size of item A.
Flaws to be aware of:
As mentioned above one of the flaws to look for when analyzing survey results is misleading graphs and misrepresentation of data. Another flaw to look for is when the survey is done using bad sampling methods. In our USA Today survey, the survey was made available to those willing participants who visited the USA Today site. This type of sample is a voluntary response sample. This is a sample in which the respondent decided whether or not they would like to participate in the survey. These type of surveys usually aren’t the greatest, since people who decide to participate usually have a strong interest in the topic mentioned (or else they wouldn’t willingly choose it). For this reason, the results may be questionable.
Things to consider when collecting sample data
The sample data which is collected should be collected using an appropriate method, such as random selection.
If sample data is not collected using an appropriate method, the data may be useless.
Using results blindly may seem accurate after conducting much research, yet if we miss the flaws described in the list above, we may produce fundamentally misleading or even wrong results. Statistical thinking, as well as critical thinking, can help understand when a survey is flawed.
Throughout the rest of these blog posts concerning statistics, we will hopefully conquer the following objectives.
Critical thinking and statistical thinking.
We should be able to analyze some sample data which is relative to its context, as well as source and sampling method.
Understand the main differences between practical significance as well as statistical significance.
We should be able to identify as well as define a voluntary response sample, as well as know that statistical conclusions that are based on certain data from the sample are generally not valid.
Different types of data
What is the difference between a statistic and a parameter?
What is the difference between discrete data and continuous data?
Check whether our basic statistical calculations are correct and appropriate regarding a particular data set.
What are the difference between categorical (attribute or qualitative) and quantitative data?
Sample Data Collecting
Identify and define what a simple random sample is.
Know what the importance is regarding sound sample methods and good design regarding our experiments.
Describe the relationship between electrons, protons, & neutrons, as well as the different ways which electrons are shared between certain atoms
Matter, is essentially the material which makes up life. Matter, is that which has mass and occupies some space. All matter is made up of elements. Those elements are made up of a certain amount of atoms. Those atoms have a constant number of unique properties as well as protons (discussed below). There are 118 elements, though only 92 of them occur naturally. Of those 92 that occurs naturally, there are fewer than 30 which are located in living cells. There is 26 which are not stable and don’t exist for long or they are considered theoretical and have not been detected.
Every element has its own chemical symbol (some of these are H, O, C, N, etc). They each also have unique properties which make them up. These properties all different elements to combine and form chemical bonds with each other.
The smallest component of an element, which still retains its chemical properties, is considered an atom. A hydrogen atom, for example, has all the unique properties of the hydrogen element. Properties such as existing in the form of gas when at room temperature. Or the fact that it can bond with oxygen and creates the water molecule. Once the hydrogen atom is broken into subatomic particles, it wouldn’t have hydrogen’s properties anymore.
Living organism are, at their most basic level, made up of a combination of elements. They have atoms which combine together and form molecules. In any multicellular organism (for example, animals), molecules interact to form the cells, which then combine and form tissue, which then makes organs. These different combinations happen until an entire multi-celled organism is formed.
The Makeup of the Atom
All atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Only hydrogen (H), is made up of one electron and one proton. An electron is a particle with a negative charge and travels around the core of the atom (or nucleus). The proton has a positive charge (or +1) and the neutron has no charge. Both the proton and the neutron reside in the nucleus. The proton and neutron have a mass of 1. The mass of the electron is negligible with a negative charge or (-1). The electron travels outside of the nucleus.
Neutral atoms have a net zero charge. This means the protons(positive) and electrons(negative) end up balancing each other out.
Since both neutrons and protons have a mass of 1, the mass of the atom would be equal to the number of neutrons and protons that atom has. Since the mass of an electron is so small and negligible, we do not need to factor in its overall mass.
As was mentioned earlier, every element has unique properties. This means they each have different numbers of neutrons and protons which gives them each their own mass number and atomic number. A mass number is also referred to as atomic mass. This is the sum of the protons and the neutrons of that element. The atomic number is the number of protons which that element contains. We can find the number of neutrons in an element when we subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
The mass number and atomic number are both useful and provide info about the different elements as well as how they will interact and react when combined. Certain elements have certain boiling and melting points. They are in different states (gas, solid, or liquid) at different temperatures. Different elements combine in different ways. Some elements will form specific types of chemical bonds, while others will not. This is based on how many electrons are present. Because of this, the different elements are placed into the periodic table of elements. This is a chart of the different elements which includes their atomic number as well as the relative atomic mass of each number. The table of elements also provides important info about the properties of the elements (usually available through color-coding).
One can get different forms of the same element. These are called isotopes. Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons but have a different number of neutrons. There are some naturally occurring isotopes, such as uranium, carbon, and potassium. Carbon-12 is the most common isotope of the element carbon. This element contains six protons and six neutrons. For this reason, it has a mass number of 12 (6 protons and 6 neutrons) and the atomic number of 6(which makes it the element carbon). Then there is carbon-14 which has eight neutrons and six protons. For this reason, it has a mass number of 14 with an atomic number of 6. Both of these forms of carbon are isotopes of the carbon element. There are isotopes which are unstable and lose subatomic particles, protons, or energy which allows them to become stable. Those elements are referred to as radioactive isotopes (also called radioisotopes).
Elements have the ability to interact with each other. This depends on how exactly the electrons are arranged. The number of openings for electrons which exist in the outermost region of the element. In an element, the electrons don’t exist in the nucleus, but rather live at different energy levels that form around the nucleus. The closest shell holds up to 2 electrons. The elements closest shell is always filled first. Since Hydrogen has one electron, it only occupies the lowest shell. Then there is Helium, which has 2 electrons and completely fills the lowest shell. The periodic table above separates the rows by how many levels that row has. The first row only has 1 energy level, then the 2nd row has 2 energy levels and so on.
The next levels (level 2 and 3) can hold up to 8 electrons each. Those electrons are in four pairs and one of the positions in those pairs is always filled before any pair is completed. When we look at the 2nd row, we see lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and neon. All of these elements have electrons which occupy the first and second shells. The first element of the second row, Lithium, only has one electron in its outermost shell, and then beryllium has two, and so on until 8 electrons fill the 2nd energy level (neon).
Elements are most stable when all of the electron positions in the outermost shell is filled. When there is a vacancy in the outermost shell, the possibility of a chemical bond increases. A chemical bond is an interaction between 2 or more of different or the same elements which results in the formation of molecules.
In pursuit of greater stability, we see atoms tend to totally fill their outer shells and will bond with other elements to accomplish their goal. They do this by sharing electrons, donating electrons to other atoms, or accepting electrons from another atom.
Elements with low atomic numbers (this goes up to calcium which has an atomic number of 20), can hold up to 8 electrons in their outer shell. This is referred to as the octet rule. An element will donate, hare, or accept electrons to fill the outer shell and satisfy the octet rule.
If an atom doesn’t have an equal number of electrons and protons, we call it an ion. When the number of protons and electrons is not equal, each ion produces a net charge. If we lose electrons, we have a positive ion, also called a cation. If we gain an electron (in other words produce a negative ion) we call those anions.
Let’s take sodium under consideration. Sodium has one electron in its outermost shell. It takes a lot less energy for that sodium element to donate one electron that for it to accept seven more electrons to fill its outer shell. If it was to lose its electron, it would now have 11 protons and 10 electrons. This gives it an overall charge of +1. This is now a sodium ion.
Then there is the chlorine atom. This has seven electrons in its outer shell. This means it is easier for it to gain 1 electron than to lose 7. For this reason, chlorine tends to gain an electron and creates an ion with 18 electrons and 17 protons. This gives it a net negative charge (-1). This would now be considered a chlorine ion. The movement of an electron from an element to another is called an electron transfer.
If we had sodium and chloride it would be likely that since sodium(NA) only has in its outer shell 1 electron, and chlorine(Cl) has 7 electrons in its outermost shell, this means the sodium element will give its electron to empty its shell. This produces 2 ions. A sodium ion with a +1 ionic charge, or cation, and chlorine becomes an anion ion with -1 charge.
Different Types of Chemical Bonds
The four types of bonds (also called interactions): Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals.
A positive ion is formed when an element donates its electron from its outer shell (like in our sodium example). Whichever element accepts the electron suddenly becomes negatively charged. Since negative and positive charges attract, those ions stay together and will form ionic bonds, which is a bond between ions. With Sodium (which has 1 extra electron on its outer shell) and Chlorine (which has 7 electrons in its outer shell), sodium will lose an electron which gets transferred to the chlorines outer shell which is in need of an electron. They do this because atoms seek to be stable, and this can happen when the outer shell is filled! These elements will bond together with the electron from one of the elements staying predominantly with the other element. When the positive sodium ion (NA+) and negative chlorine (Cl-) ions mix and combine and produce NaCl, the electron from the sodium atom stays with the other 7 that are from the chlorine atom. The chloride and sodium ions attract each other with a net zero charge.
A covalent bond happens whenever electrons are shared between 2 elements. These are the strongest and also the most common types of chemical bonds in living organisms. The elements which make up biological molecules in cells, happen because of covalent bonds. While covalent bonds do not dissociate in water, ionic bonds do.
The oxygen and hydrogen atoms which combine to form the water molecule are bound together as a covalent bond. The electron which is in the hydrogen atom will divide its time between its outer shell and the incomplete outer shell of the oxygen element. In order to fill its outer shell, the oxygen atom uses 2 electrons from the hydrogen atom (that’s why subscript “2” in H2O). The atoms share the electrons. They divide there time to share the time spent between them to “fill” those outer shells of each. This sharing is a low energy state compared than if they existed with no outer shells filled.
2 Types of Covalent Bonds
The 2 types of covalent bonds are polar and nonpolar.
In nonpolar covalent bonds, 2 atoms form, of the same element and share their electrons equally. An example of this is found when we look at the oxygen atom. An oxygen atom can bond itself with another atom and they will fill their outer shells. This is because this bond requires 2 shared electrons in order to fill the other most shell of both. Then there is the example of nitrogen which can form 3 covalent bonds (these are also referred to as triple covalent bonds) between 2 atoms of nitrogen since each atom requires up to 3 electrons to fill its outer most shell. Finally, we can look at CH₄ (methane). This molecule. Usually, a carbon atom will have 4 atoms in its most outermost shell. This, of course, means it needs 4 more electrons to stabilize. Once it gets 4 from hydrogen, its a wrap… we have methane. These 4 electrons are provided by four hydrogen atoms, which each provides 1 electron. They all share their electrons equally. This creates four nonpolar covalent bonds.
Then, in a polar covalent bond, electrons which are shared by the atom spend more time closer to a specific nucleus than the other nucleus. Because there is an unequal distribution of electrons between the different nuclei, different slightly negative, or slightly positive charge develops (δ–, (δ+)). There is a covalent bond between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of water. These are polar covalent bonds. They share electrons and spend more time near the oxygen nucleus. This gives it (the oxygen atom) a negative charge (albeit a small one), and the time it spends in the hydrogen atom, give the hydrogen atom a positive charge.
The first thing to say about hydrogen bonds is that they are weaker than ionic and covalent bonds! This is because it takes less energy to break these type of bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular bonds, which means they form between molecules (Between 2 different molecules), as opposed to ionic and covalent bonds which happen between atoms.
When there is a polar covalent bond which contains a hydrogen atom, the hydrogen atom that bonds, has a slightly positive charge. This is of course because of the shared electron pulling strongly toward the other element and away from the hydrogen nucleus. Since the hydrogen is slightly positive, this will attract it to the slightly negative charge of nearby molecules.
Van der Waals Interactions
Very similar to hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions are also weak interactions or attractions that happen between molecules. These will occur between covalently bound, polar atoms in different molecules. Weak attractions which are caused by temporary small changes which form when electrons are moving around a nucleus cause these bonds.
Bio-medical research looks at the mechanism underlying sex. Research in bio-medicine has the most impact which is most practical concerning the sex lives of individuals. These include drug treatment (concerning reproductive cancers), hormone-based abortion and contraception, technologies that treat infertility, methods to prevent STIs, etc.
Usually, research in biomedicine is conducted on animals but since the invention of modern imaging technologies, we have been capable of researching humans to better understand brain function during sexual encounters.
The decipherment regarding the human genome project unraveled many truths previously unknown to humanity. This allowed us to ascertain the sex of individuals as well as detecting any abnormalities. There is current research being conducted attempting to focus in on those genes which might influence important traits like a person’s sexual orientation.
The studying of parts of the brain has allowed conceptions to shift from learned cultural phenomena to more like innateness based on traits.
Studying behavior and mental processes have branched into a plethora of subdisciplines. Social Psychology contributes most significantly to our understanding of sexuality. Social Psychology has to do with looking at the way humans relate to other people, and how they think about and influence them. One example test was performed with college students. Half of the students where shown rape scenes. After a few days, the students were asked questions, and the students who saw the rape scenes were more favorable towards sexual violence than the control group. This showed that exposure to scenes of violence could predispose certain men to enact sexual assaults. Social Psychology allows for us to learn this about sexuality.
Studying societies and large social structures allows for an exceptional way to contribute to studying human sexuality. A sociologist is able to research in what ways sexual orientation may vary with race, age, religious beliefs, political views, national origin, etc. Through the utilization of public surveys, large data is able to be gathered to create particular views of different societies.
Problems with Surveys
Though surveys help gather large amounts of data to better represent a population, sometimes the data may not be as accurate as possible. Many people might be sensitive in disclosing personal sexual information, especially if it is information one regards as shameful.
Even very large random sample surveys may not accurately represent minorities within minorities. The data can become skewed quickly when taken nested minorities into consideration.
Economic Approach to Learning About Sexuality
What are the costs and benefits of one’s sexuality? Sometimes, the answer can’t be expressed in dollar amounts. Sometimes the cost is your time, or it might cost you your shame. Studying the risks one is willing to take helps us understand sexuality tremendously. People are constantly, unconsciously or consciously, regarding the costs and benefits of encounters they regard (or want to regard) as sexual. The benefit isn’t always monetary, it may be something like protection, or a family.
9 Sex Facts I learned the first week of my Human Sexuality Class
Social Psychology is the study of our relationship with others.
In the women’s movement of the 1970s and 80s we see arguments for:
a woman’s right to have full control of their body
a man’s shared responsibility to provide pleasure
their right to look for sexual pleasure in relationships
freedom from coercion regarding sex
Transgender is defined as one who identifies with the opposite sex or even rejecting any gender norms.
The 1960’s sexual revolution allowed for greater acceptance by the public regarding sex before marriage.
Simon LeVay’s research concerning the evaluation of the brains of straight and gay men revealed that the hypothalamus differs in size.
For most of history organized Christianity did not allow sex outside of marriage.
Using college students or any specific population is unlikely to give us a representative dataset of the general population
Castration was performed in Italy on young males to preserve their childlike singing voices. Slaves and prisoners were also castrated to keep tighter control over them. Castration was mostly unwilling in the past, today it is usually undertaken willingly.
An influx and increase in population are usually linked to higher possibilities of STIs.
Identify and describe the properties of life. – Living things share some common properties. According to our online reading material the properties of life are order, sensitivity or response to stimuli, reproduction, adaption, growth and development, regulation, homeostasis, and energy processing. These 8 characteristics characterize living things. Life displays order through the organization of the organism. Living things will either respond positively or negatively to stimuli. Then, there is reproduction. which single-celled organisms are able to do by copying and duplicating its DNA. Once the information is copied it divides equally, while many multi-celled organisms produce special reproductive cells that form new individuals. DNA, which contains the genetics, are passed down to offspring after reproduction Adaptation has to do with how a living organism “fits” into their environment and the process of natural selection allows for organisms to change accordingly to that environment. Though adaption is not constant, whenever there are changes in the environment, the population of that environment will change to maximize their reproductive potential in accordance with those new changes. Growth and development is an obvious sign of something living and it happens based on the genes which were passed by the parents. The regulation of all these complex processes happens constantly while that organism remains alive. Even small organisms need a mechanism to coordinate and regulate internal functions. Homeostasis allows an organism to keep a constant internal state or “steady-state”. A polar bear, for example, keeps homeostasis through a process called thermoregulation. Last is energy processing. All living organisms use a source of energy. Energy allows for metabolic activities to happen. Some organisms get their energy from the sun which is changed and converted into chemical energy. Other organisms get their energy from molecules taken in.
Describe the levels of organization among living things – Organisms organize in complex ways. We start this organization at the atomic level with the smallest unit of matter, the atom. The atom is comprised of a nucleus that is surrounded by electrons. Then, when 2 atoms form a chemical bond we get a molecule. There are macromolecules (which are pretty important biologically!) which usually form by the combination of these smaller units named monomers. DNA is an example of a macromolecule. There are cells that aggregate macromolecules that are surrounded in membranes. These are called organelles. Organelles are tiny structures within cells that perform functions that are highly specialized for that cell. Cells are fundamental for life and the smallest unit of function and structure in all living things. Viruses have no cells, which is why most do not consider viruses to be alive). Those cells which consist of only one cell are considered prokaryotes. These cells lack nuclei as well as organelles. Multicellular cells are made up of at least 2 cells, these are called eukaryotes. Eukaryotes do contain nuclei and organelles that are membrane-bound.
List examples of different sub-disciplines in biology – There are many fields of sub-disciplines within biology. Molecular biology deals with those things at the molecular level and the interaction between molecules. Then there is microbiology which looks at how microorganisms interact with each other. Neurobiology (also referred to as neuroscience) studies the nervous system. There is also the field of forensics that looks at the evidence left at crime scenes to figure out information on what happened.
If you are yet to hear of this man, you have certainly seen his product frequently every time you go to the gas station and grocery shopping. 5 Hour Energy was released to the market in 2004. In less than 10 years, sales grew to over 1 billion dollars. Now, 5 Hour Energy is estimated a worth of over 4 billion dollars.
What About The Money?
What you probably don’t know is what founder, Manoj Bhargava, is doing with his accumulated wealth. Manoj has pledged over 90 percent of his accumulated wealth to charity. There are over 400 charities that he has funded. He looks at philanthropy as a thing that should be approached realistically. Manoj does not simply just give money away to these charities but he becomes involved with them personally. He is working on projects that are designed to help the world, he says, ” if you have wealth, it’s a duty to help those who don’t”.
Manoj is focusing in on 3 areas. Water, electric and health.
There is over 1 billion people on the planet that do not have access to clean and drinkable water, but this can soon be a thing of the past. The “Rain Project” will aid in providing clean water to the world.
This apparatus is said to be able to filter about 1,000 gallons of sea water. Imagine these within thousands of barges scatter in throughout the “seven seas“. There are plenty of projects helping the world, but being able to filter sea water is an amazing achievement!
Project “Free Electric”, is a pretty simple but extremely beneficial project!
This will simply require about an hour of pedaling to provide about a days worth of electricity. A great and worthy of mention part of this project is that it’s pollution free, which as Manoj says, “that’s everything”. Not only would this be beneficial for our pockets and the environment, but also for our health.
There are plenty of medical projects as well but “Renew”, is one in particular that will help stop preventable illnesses.
This product will augment circulation throughout the body. It will press blood from your feet and help it circulate up to your upper body and heart. It will act as an auxiliary and aid in the proper distribution of blood throughout the body.
All these inventions have the potential to help change the world forever for the better!
There is a major part of the world’s money that is held by a small percentage. It is good to see that some of those people are attempting to help those in need. Manoj’s project “Billions in Change”, has created an amazing set of individual’s who are dedicated in creating products that will help humanity like never before.
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